Monday, October 08, 2018

Support for affirmative action by race

It's not all chew the Jew, heap scorn on the chosen few. No, no, that's not my view, but it is my cue to share the following with you. Whew.

From the GSS, percentages by selected demographics who support affirmative action, specifically preferential treatment for blacks in hiring and promotions (for contemporary relevance, all responses are from 2000 onward; N = 11,008):


When it comes to support for racial preferences, the modal Jew is to the left of the liberal white gentile, but not by that much, and only modestly more favorable towards them than Hispanics and Asians are. And conservative Jews are about on par with the middle-of-the-road white gentile.

Parenthetically, this question has no possible neutral response. Survey participants either support or oppose affirmative action. Even most blacks oppose--or at least say they oppose--it. Opposition to racial preferences is not just a populist position, it's a very popular one. That's why the Cloud People don't ever say anything about it, and silence the Dirt People who do.

Orthogonally, among non-Hispanic whites--including Levantine-Americans, the vast majority of whom racially self-identify as being white--it is, on average, expected that one in every X will be Jewish, by political orientation:

Very conservative -- 1 in 98
Moderately conservative -- 1 in 62
Lean conservative -- 1 in 49
Lean liberal -- 1 in 27
Moderately liberal -- 1 in 22
Very liberal -- 1 in 23

These are among those who religiously self-identify as Jewish in addition to racially self-identifying as white. Some indeterminate number of secular ethnic Jews who elect "none" instead of "Jewish" for their religion will not be included here. These ghosts presumably skew even more left than the at least nominally religious Jews do.

Finally, a little shit poasting. Judaism is the second whitest religious tradition in the United States, whiter than all but one (major) denomination within Christianity. The following table shows the contemporary percentages of self-identified non-Hispanic whites among all adherents, by religion (N = 81,236):

Affiliation%white
Lutheran93.7
Jewish87.4
Mormon85.5
Methodist82.8
Presbyterian81.1
Episcopalian80.5
Other Protestant78.0
Catholic76.7
None71.9
Baptist67.3
Other religions65.1
Islam25.9
Hindu7.1

Just a few more years of refugee-racketeering by Lutheran 'charitable' agencies in the upper midwest and enough of the newly-minted Americans will exclaim sola fide to give the dubious honor of being the whitest of the white to the Jews! Or perhaps not.

These figures exclude people under the age of 18, which is why everything looks a whiter--and Catholicism a lot whiter--than a decennial census count that inquired about religious affiliation would look.

GSS variables used: AFFRMACT(1-2)(3-4), RACECEN1(1)(2)(4-10), HISPANIC(1)(2-50), RELIG(1,2,4-13)(3), POLVIEWS(1-3)(5-7)

33 comments:

silly girl said...

Seriously, Islam 25% white, are you kidding me? I mean Pakistanis aren't so white nor are Indonesians, but most muslims in the USA are white. What race are they choosing? Asian?

IHTG said...

Might be African Americans who identify as Muslim.

Jig Bohnson said...

Wow, surprised at a few numbers here:

1) Asians support AA for blacks at a higher rate than whites? At a higher rate than liberal whites?? Seems unbelievable. Asians are the biggest losers in that.

2) 7% of Hindus in America are white? Who are these people? Hinduism has very few white converts as opposed to say Buddhism. In fact I can only think of one - George Harrison.

3) 13% of Jews are not white? Who are these people? There are a tiny number of Ethiopian Jews in America, and a tiny number of Black Hebrew Israelite types - nowhere near enough to make that number.

Something is fishy about all of those numbers.

As for the 25% of Muslims being white, that sounds plausible. Most Muslims in the US are either Black NOI types or South Asians. A minority are Arab, Persian, or Bosnian etc., and those probably account for the whites.

Anonymous said...

I tend to think abolishing affirmative action should be the central plank of Trump's 2020 campaign.

216 said...

O/T

Some more evidence to confirm my narrative about how Trump has botched handling of immigration. Read the comments, its a field day for the left crowing about the Mara-lago (seriously, how tone deaf is Ivanka that she couldn't stop this?). Liberals have a hard time reconciling the Right's opposition to the minimum wage with its "newfound belief" that immigration acts as wage suppression. They are correct about the hypocritical small businesses.

The public's strongest desires on immigration is to see ICE dismantling sex trafficking gangs, and arresting wealthy white business owners that exploit illegals. Instead we have a hackneyed response that appears to be influenced by Yoder-style congressmen applying behind the scenes influence.

https://www.cleveland.com/metro/index.ssf/2018/10/shortage_of_h2b_worker_visas_s.html

Passer by said...

This cuck started with the virtue signaling

– Brett Kavanaugh proud that he just hired the Supreme Court’s first all-women law clerk team

http://theweek.com/speedreads/800702/brett-kavanaugh-just-hired-supreme-courts-first-allwomen-law-clerk-team

Philippe le Bel said...

OT (sorry) : my laste updated predictions :

house :
https://nsa39.casimages.com/img/2018/10/09/1810090703225346.png

senate :
https://nsa39.casimages.com/img/2018/10/09/181009070322105242.png

governors
https://nsa39.casimages.com/img/2018/10/09/181009070322347362.png


(all pick-up in light color)

Unknown said...

Jigh Bohnson: Could Sephardic Spanish/Portuguese hispanic jews, latino Cuban etc. Jews, and also middle eastern Jews.

Most of the "white" muslims are probably middle eastern arabs and north africans

Anonymous said...

@unknown

You are right. Sephardic Jews are North African, and therefore not white. They're not black either. They are middle eastern. Mizrahi Jews are also middle eastern.

Anonymous said...

@anonymous at 10/9/18, 7:02 AM

Yes, he should. And I would actually consider voting for him if he did that. But what if he doesn't get it done?

The wall hasn't been built. Obamacare hasn't been repealed. We don't have a Muslim travel ban. We haven't even gotten that many illegal immigrants deported. I'm glad I didn't vote for Trump because I knew he was being a blowhard in 2016. If I did vote for him then I'd be looking like a fool by now. Trump and the Republican party are so incompetent, I feel that a conservative Democrat is more likely to actually abolish affirmative action before they can.

Feryl said...

"1) Asians support AA for blacks at a higher rate than whites? At a higher rate than liberal whites?? Seems unbelievable. Asians are the biggest losers in that."

The sense I get is that Asians are substantially more pro-black now than they were in the Korean-shopkeepers-shooting-black-looters days of the early 90's (in nearly all parts of America, crime was like 10X worse in 1992 than it is now). Asians were much more likely to vote Republican in the 80's and early 90's than they are now.

The Law still treats Asians as being minorities who are eligible for various perks, and Asians are well-schooled in Cultural Marxist hate and soak whitey type stuff. If Asians were treated as being culturally and legally indistinguishable from whites, then gee, maybe they'd be more on our side. Asians have almost, as far as I can tell, completely no-showed the Alt-Right movement, aside from maybe a few Gen Z Asians who thought it would be fun to rebel. As I recall black and even Mexican-American Boomers were more visibly supportive of Trump than any group of Asians (generational loyalty sure goes a long way).

Feryl said...

The wall hasn't been built. Obamacare hasn't been repealed. We don't have a Muslim travel ban. We haven't even gotten that many illegal immigrants deported. I'm glad I didn't vote for Trump because I knew he was being a blowhard in 2016. If I did vote for him then I'd be looking like a fool by now. Trump and the Republican party are so incompetent, I feel that a conservative Democrat is more likely to actually abolish affirmative action before they can.

Every US president is at the mercy of his party's goals. Since neither the Dems nor GOP have any serious intention to make populist reforms like heavy regulation of the financial markets, heavy immigration reductions, stronger anti-trust enforcement, re-industrialization, and so on, what difference does it make who's president? I would argue that the the Democrats having greater success would raise the pressure on this country's white population, which is still massive and important. We need to encourage the fortunes of hard Left Dems who aim to replace whites, abolish police control of the streets, and popularize massive redistribution schemes in the name of "minority" uplift.

Continued Republican success, in light of the GOP's general cowardice, might ultimately back fire as Boomercons get to keep polishing their guns in their mountain cabins, while a long demographic and underclass fuze has been lit and will then detonate a Western Civ. destroying bomb when Gen X-ers are nearing retirement, showering shrapnel on everyone.

Then there's the fact that white people born in the 1950's and 60's are allowing the GOP to remain, from a demographic and cultural standpoint, decades behind the nature and preferences of younger generations, who are much more cognizant of what diversity is and what diversity means, while interestingly said younger generations are much less likely to support neo-liberal capitalism. Because the white Boomer/early X-er cohort is so goddam big, it's in effect delaying, for years on end, recognition of what a post-Boomer America is, what it wants, and what it will get, eventually.......

216 said...

Feryl,

Asian in 2018 has a different meaning than Asian in 1992. The source countries have changed, lots of South Asians resent the anti-Islam stance of conservatives even if they aren't Muslim themselves. Anti-communism is also no longer important. Most Asians have tended to settle in blue coastal areas.

Pre-1965 Asians made a dedicated effort to assimilate to WASP culture. If you look at the culture of rural/suburban conservatives today, almost no foreigners would willingly choose to adopt it, and the average conservative is nowhere near as exclusionary as we are here.

The immigration issue clashes their desire to import the extended family, with the wage/fertility suppression of whites that they are reluctant to trust in the name of civic piety. While immigration restriction would benefit underclass blacks/Hispanics the most, that has never been a salient point in discourse.

Look at the most prominent Asians in the GOP, Dinesh (who for all intents and purposes considers himself white), Nimrata Haley, and basically no one else of importance. An otherwise bland centrist of Asian descent cursed with ambition would see no future in the GOP. Unlike in the other Anglo countries, we select leaders via party primaries rather than closed "hustings" that are pre-selected by the party elite in the capital. That's why the UK Conservative party has lots of non-white and gay MPs.

216 said...

Feryl,

My problem with the accelrationist tendency is the historical record. The example in numerous large cities on several continents, the state of California and South Africa; is that white conservatives will either flee or cuck. Come 2040, "Belarus or Bust" won't be a joke. The entryist tendency gets around the liberal mindset of a majority of whites.

Whites have passively accepted affirmative action for several decades, even when it was banned via referendum the bureaucracy just ignored it with impunity. Explicit confiscation of retirement accounts will be preceded by taxation, just as seizure of South African farms was preceded by the confiscation of mineral rights.

Once the Boomers disappear from the stage, its not outrageous to think that conservatism as a whole will disappear. The Dissident movements are in no position to provide an alternative. The Evan Williams fantasy of one-party rule will happen, and we might just relegate ourselves to irrelevancy as did the AWB.

Feryl said...

California still has the most whites of any state, by sheer numbers. And many of them live in defacto ethnic strongholds that price out interlopers, or they live in rural areas. Watch what liberals do, not what they say (as Chateux Heartiste says about women). Many parts of California are now more pleasant to be in than they were in the 80's and 90's peak of gang and drug warfare. The chief complaint about California is that it's just too damn expensive to live in. Steve Sailer said a few years ago that his dad started leaving his car unlocked more often in the late 2000's, whereas in the late 70's-late 90's his dad would never have done that.

I don't think the South Africa analogy really makes any sense, because black people think that Africa belongs to them and are intensely territorial about it. Whereas nobody really think that California belongs to anyone. Also, whereas South Africa is riven by ethnic conflict, California, like the other Western US states, is largely united in opposition to conforming to what mainstream and traditional society want. It's like how the Eastern US has the Amish, who've always been tolerated by their neighbors, while the Mormons refusal to get along with Easterners caused them to flee to the lawless West, where they didn't have to concern themselves with how mainstream society viewed them.

Feryl said...

"My problem with the accelrationist tendency is the historical record. The example in numerous large cities on several continents, the state of California and South Africa; is that white conservatives will either flee or cuck. Come 2040, "Belarus or Bust" won't be a joke. The entryist tendency gets around the liberal mindset of a majority of whites."

Since Boomers are proving to be incapable of coalescing around wholesome reforms, as they doggedly insist that everyone of their (often inane) demands be met and their ego be flattered before they sign on to, ahem, a new deal, the sooner we plunge into a crisis the better. Like I said above, allowing society to continue to erode away bit by bit during a time of (misleading) economic and cultural stability, is the worst thing of all. Until there is mass poverty, disease, riots, war, forceful humiliation and appropriation of elites/a disfavored ethnic group, etc., the still dominant Me Generation will keep hyping up Horatio Alger neo-liberalism, individualism, regressive taxes, market de-regulation, high immigration levels, and the like.

Millennials greatly want these reforms, and having been born into a neo-liberal nut house, they see no reason to continue propping up the society that Bill Clinton and Tony Blair created. The trouble is that today's younger generations are getting no leadership or effective guidance from older people. In the event of a deepened crisis, it's still possible, BTW, that the older generations totally fuck up, which would make Millennials feel like the resigned 20 and 30 somethings who saw America get shredded apart by the Civil War. And Gen X-ers, just like the middle aged generation during the Civil War told that era's youth, would tell Millennials: "Hey, we told you so" WRT how blundering and useless the Boomer type generations are during a time of discord.

Audacious Epigone said...

Silly girl,

I pulled this data from R-I polling. The GSS finds a nearly identical figure, 27.5%, though.

One-third are black, one-quarter are Asian, and the remainder are "some other race" and 1 respondent in the sample is American Indian (feather)!

Jig,

R-I shows the same thing, with a +18pt support for affirmative action among white liberals compared to a +30pt support for it among Asians. The R-I poll shows an almost even nationwide split, and I'm realizing now--or being reminded, I should say, since there is a general concept here that everyone should be aware of--that affirmative action looks a lot more popular here than in the GSS because instead of talking specifically about giving blacks preferential treatment, it asks "due to racial discrimination, programs such as affirmative action are necessary to help create equality".

Candidly, I definitely oppose the GSS question but would agree with the R-I question. Giving an artificial leg up to NAMs will help "create equality". I just don't see equality as much of a value, let alone the highest one.

As for non-white Jews, I wonder how many are going to pick the MENA designation instead of white in 2020. The GSS puts it at 95% n-H white for Jews, though that number runs back to 2000. Jews, like everyone else, have probably experienced their own "flight from white" over the last couple of decades.

Damn it, I lazily thought the former McCartneys were!

Passer by said...

@Feryl

On the other hand i'm hearing bad things about California, such as Stockton getting bankrupt, San Francisco being covered in faeces, a rise of drug addicts and homeless people, including large homeless camps (Skidrow?), SF no longer being safe at night, California having the highest poverty rate of all US states, etc.

Here is one well liked comment that i saved recently:

"As a Californian I can attest to the total destruction of California. It was once one of the most beautiful states in our country, now it resembles a 3rd world nation. I just said goodbye to two more neighbors who were a part of the hard working middle class that supports this country. One family left for Texas, the other for Arizona. I don't have much hope for California. The Democrats continue to destroy what's left of the state. "

I'v seen other similar comments of this type.

So this thing about California getting better is dubious to me.

Audacious Epigone said...

Anon,

If this is real, then while I'm sympathetic, it MUST remain the National Question.

Passer by,

He was cucking even during the congressional 'hearings'. As Feryl says, yeah, he's neoliberal, of course. But so was Darren Wilson, probably. Identity is the new game in town. The elites are the last ones who are going to pick up on it, but their battles can help clarify it on its way up to them.

216,

Re: white conservatives cucking, I went to the Topeka Trump rally last weekend--or rather got there 4 hours before it started, which was not nearly early enough actually get into the arena. The experience made me appreciate the fear of the populist (read middle American white) movement Trump has stoked. There were so damned many people, virtually all of them white. If Trump came out wearing an "it's okay to be white" shirt, they'd suddenly be as popular as MAGA hats are. And if he told them to... well, there's a lot of potential there. His ability to drive people out is unlike anything that has happened on the political right in American politics, ever.

Funny aside, a neighbor who had toyed with the idea of coming with us decided against it the night before because "I'm going to devote the day to something I've needed to do for awhile now ... POLISH MY GUNS!" Total boomercon, if it wasn't bleedingly obvious.

Audacious Epigone said...

Feryl,

Yes, California does still have the most n-H whites in absolute numbers, but no other state is bleeding whites, in absolute numbers, at anything like California is. In another decade, Texas will have the most n-H whites of any state in the country (and will also, like California is now, likely be a blue state).

Feryl said...

http://www.unz.com/isteve/trump-as-an-indirect-product-of-the-sixties-cultural-revolution/

Good post about the idiocy of trying to portray Trump as an authoritarian. Steve says that Trump's style, and the famously high level of chaos surrounding Trump at all times, is actually in keeping with the late 60's and 70's tendency to make defying decorum and taste a Cool Thing. Trump represents what most cultural elites still want (verbal,economic, and lifestyle freedom), but he's not good at following PC which is why elites hate him. PC is the only boundary that cultural elites defend anymore, what with our cultural standards being debauched for 50 years with the encouragement of our "betters".

In short, Trump doesn't represent a threat to elites and liberals as much as he embarrasses them. What's keeping SWPLs on the shrink's couch is the still unbelievable notion that such a crass elite is regularly embarrassing them, and nothing can be done to kick Trump back to the tabloids. The Pentagon and GOP insiders worked to kick out Bannon and neuter Jeff Sessions, two figures who actually did intend to reduce the chaos of modern America, that many younger and prole class Americans are tiring of (as is proven by successive generations being better behaved than the last, see the Youth Risk Survey which proves that on measures of violence and sex teenagers have been getting more and more restrained since the late 90's).

216 said...

Passer by,

I hate to give Feryl (and Ron Unz by proxy) credit on this, but the evidence is overwhelming that Los Angeles and San Francisco are far less overrun by violent crime than they were in the 1990s. The sentiment behind the "Three-strikes law" has vanished and been replaced by a desire to keep non-whites out of prison. California is also a few points less black than it used to be, and that decline will probably continue.

The above matters not to me because I see the stripping of self-determination in what was once the most conservative state in the country to be a deeply immoral act. The government was derelict of its constitutional duty to secure the states against invasion. Every election in California has its results known in advance, that isn't the republican form of government. In all seriousness, the state should either be expelled from the country or be put under a Reconstruction to restore a favorable demographic balance.

Feryl said...


"On the other hand i'm hearing bad things about California, such as Stockton getting bankrupt, San Francisco being covered in faeces, a rise of drug addicts and homeless people, including large homeless camps (Skidrow?), SF no longer being safe at night, California having the highest poverty rate of all US states, etc.

Here is one well liked comment that i saved recently:

"As a Californian I can attest to the total destruction of California. It was once one of the most beautiful states in our country, now it resembles a 3rd world nation. I just said goodbye to two more neighbors who were a part of the hard working middle class that supports this country. One family left for Texas, the other for Arizona. I don't have much hope for California. The Democrats continue to destroy what's left of the state. "

I'v seen other similar comments of this type.

So this thing about California getting better is dubious to me."

I didn't say anything was that great about California as much as I said that that California is empirically safer to live in than it was 30 or 40 years ago. Because California attracts large numbers of elites and immigrants, the number of affordable housing units and good jobs is never adequate. And per armed forces testing, California whites as a whole have never been that gifted, and the state still attracts lots of ditzy wannabe celebrities and the like. Native born whites who just want to live a quiet, normal life have been alienated by the state for the last 30-40 years, as striving and immigration went up.

Today's decadent elites now oversee dystopian conditions in many urban environments. Due to a shredded safety net and high levels of immigration, many municipalities now struggle to deal with drug addicts, the homeless, and the mentally ill. But back in the (Boomer driven) Awakening and Unraveling, of the late 1960's-early 2000's, we had a more materially comfortable populace that nevertheless chose to abuse, hit, stab, and shoot their fellow man. It's as if Boomers are intent on the bringing the worst out of humanity during every phase of their cursed generation's life-span.

216 said...

AE,

Texas going perma-left in a single cycle would be interesting to watch. Having the whole enchilada of an income tax and a gun ban passed in rapid succession could be the spark. The "rootedness" is far higher in the conservative parts of that state, along with the pre-existing national consciousness.

Ted Cruz should take a page from Bolsonaro and tell Beto that any victory of his would be fraudulent.

Feryl said...

"Yes, California does still have the most n-H whites in absolute numbers, but no other state is bleeding whites, in absolute numbers, at anything like California is. In another decade, Texas will have the most n-H whites of any state in the country (and will also, like California is now, likely be a blue state). "

How does that addiction to Growth turn out? Encouraging wholesome industry, and not relying on immigrants and slaves, is good for us in the long run. But an economy based on "service" and "the consumer" not making goods but instead purchasing foreign made stuff, is what's created a new guilded age and is threatening to inflate ridiculous bubbles even higher, which is making life miserable for many even before the bubbles pop (and I would argue that it's in our best interest to pop the bubble ASAP to make people "woke" about the market, and create caution about neo-liberalism, whereas during the "endless" economic boom of 1983-2001, we saw Silents and Boomers absorb neo-liberalism into every fiber of their being). So far it's primarily the under and just above underclass who are enraged at The Market (including most Millennials), but for the comfortable set there isn't much concern about how we handle The Market.

Feryl said...

"Texas going perma-left in a single cycle would be interesting to watch. Having the whole enchilada of an income tax and a gun ban passed in rapid succession could be the spark. The "rootedness" is far higher in the conservative parts of that state, along with the pre-existing national consciousness.

Ted Cruz should take a page from Bolsonaro and tell Beto that any victory of his would be fraudulent."

Bill Maher said recently that Texas frequently tries to bar people from voting, because the state's generally conservative white population, and their representatives, wants to maintain the GOP's grip on the state in the face of demographic changes. This of course is a worn out tactic in the Southern states, which have long been enemies of democracy, being that they wish to protect an (often arrogant) dominant class from an underclass, who are supposed to toil and keep their mouths shut. Of course, I know that more liberal whites in other regions are hypocrites about race, but it's still true that more liberal regions are more sincere about trying to integrate rich (and often white) people with underclass (often NAM) people. It's the high-low liberal party approach, Vs the high(er) class only and fuck everyone else approach that the FedGov had to cajole the South out of.

Regardless, if neither CA or TX wants to reckon with the reality that ultimately, all of us would be better off with lower immigration and greater cultural stability, then fuck 'em both. In a decadent period, elites want to line their pockets while facing minimal accountability for their follies. And as I've said before, the Plains states have the most retarded GOP'ers because they ideally want to be rewarded for sucking up to Agribusiness and Xtian family values, all the while immigrants are encouraged to come to these places and the region's elites do precious little to support industries that would give nice jobs to working class natives.

Anonymous said...

I have lived in California for most of my life. The idea that it is safer here than in the 70' is a farce. Crime is through the roof now and in the 70's we never locked our doors. My dad would leave his key in the ignition of his car always. I remember walking through the parking lots and seeing keys in most cars ignitions window down. Now your car is not safe locked in the garage. I don't know why anyone would think this place is safer than before. Delusional.

Feryl said...

Anonymous: You Boomers (and near Boomers) aren't fooling anyone. Look at this crime chart:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Property_Crime_Rates_in_the_United_States.svg

Late 50's and early 1960's births droves crime rates to record high levels in the late 70's and very early 80's. Face it, it's Boomers who are the most dangerous and sociopathic generation in history (1980's studies on Boomers revealed that they had elevated levels of narcissism). Granted, I wouldn't expect most Boomers to actually remember what happened in the 70's since most of them were frying their brains on drugs.

We get it; Boomers don't have any respect for the generations that followed them. So why not promote the risible idea that America "is more dangerous than ever before"? Yes sir. Just knock it off already. Boomers need to stop projecting their own inadequacies and sins onto other people.

Oh, and yeah, I love when Boomers claim that the government lies about crime.....The same government that locks up more people than China. Surveys that look for actual crime victims reveal that self-ID'd victims are a close match to the number of crimes recorded by law enforcement in a given year. In other words, people's accounts of crime are similar to the crime levels reported by the government. And on Sailer's blog a really popular Boomerism is that the murder rate would be 500X higher if gun shot victims didn't get good treatment. Bullshit. The number of living gun shot victims has decreased in tandem with the dead ones. The British government, which doesn't lock lots of people up, has probably been lying about crime for decades at this point. But that's not something that the US authorities typically do.

Notably, BTW, the robbery and sexual assault rate peaked from 1977-1980, and have been declining ever since, with the only real exception being the early 90's. That's generally true of all crime, but I highlighted robbery and rape because of how insanely high the rates were in the late 70's.

Audacious Epigone said...

Feryl,

PC is the only boundary that cultural elites defend anymore

That's really good, thanks.

IHTG said...

Relevant: https://twitter.com/Yascha_Mounk/status/1050032044649193473
https://twitter.com/Yascha_Mounk/status/1050033177077665795

Ja D said...

Tbh, I'm surprised there wasn't more support from the POC.

Audacious Epigone said...

Ja D,

It explicitly asks about preferences for blacks. When questions are about affirmative action in general, support goes up (even among blacks—they have some shame!)

Ja D said...

My bad, cheers.